Uberon is a multi-species ontology containing a rich graph representation of anatomy across animals. Uberon covers anatomical structures ranging from whole organ systems through to microscopic structures. It is integrated with the cell type ontology.

The majority of classes in Uberon represent vertebrate structures. Uberon is federated with multiple other anatomy ontologies.


  • Haendel, M. a, Balhoff, J. P., Bastian, F. B., Blackburn, D. C., Blake, J. a, Bradford, Y., … Mungall, C. J. (2014). Unification of multi-species vertebrate anatomy ontologies for comparative biology in Uberon. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5(1), 21. http://doi.org/10.1186/2041-1480-5-21
  • Mungall, C. J., Torniai, C., Gkoutos, G. V, Lewis, S. E., & Haendel, M. A. (2012). Uberon, an integrative multi-species anatomy ontology. Genome Biology, 13(1), R5. http://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-r5
  • Diehl, A. D., Meehan, T. F., Bradford, Y. M., Brush, M. H., Dahdul, W. M., Dougall, D. S., … Mungall, C. J. (2016). The Cell Ontology 2016: enhanced content, modularization, and ontology interoperability. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 7(1), 44. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13326-016-0088-7
  • Thacker, R. W., Díaz, M. C., Kerner, A., Vignes-Lebbe, R., Segerdell, E., Haendel, M. a, & Mungall, C. J. (2014). The Porifera Ontology (PORO): enhancing sponge systematics with an anatomy ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 5(1), 39. http://doi.org/10.1186/2041-1480-5-39